Earliest known Homo sapiens fossils discovered This is , years older than previously discovered fossils of Homo sapiens that have been securely dated. The discovery was presented in a study in the journal Nature on Wednesday. This marks the first discovery of such fossils in north Africa, and widens the “cradle of mankind” to encompass all of Africa, the researchers said. Previous finds were in south or east Africa. The fossils, including a partial skull and a lower jaw, belong to five different individuals including three young adults, an adolescent and a child estimated to be 8 years old.

Extracting Dinosaur DNA from Amber Fossils Impossible, Scientists Say

These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition. Stromatolites Lower Proterozoic Stromatolites from Bolivia , South America Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria.

While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae. One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia.

The simple answer is: Because dating fossils is really difficult. Scientific papers and news reports about new fossils so regularly come with estimates of age that it’s easy forget how hard-won.

Renaissance Now, let’s look at some specific examples. One type of atom that does not normally react is Neon. See the picture to the left. It already has the correct number of electrons in it’s outside electron layer so Neon does not react. Neon, along with Helium and Argon are known as non-reacting gasses because they do not need to react to be stable. Other types of atoms such as Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen do not have the correct number of electrons to be stable by itself.

Instead they have to share electrons in molecules to get the correct number of electrons in their outside electron layer. Since we only have to look at the atom that is in the center of the molecule to find out it’s shape, we will concentrate only on Carbon and Oxygen. All the molecules illustrated on this page either have a Carbon or an Oxygen as the center atom. Carbon will especially be of interest since Carbon is the center atom for all the different Amino Acids.

Both Carbon and Oxygen have a deficiency. Neither C nor O have the proper number of electrons in their outside electron layer. Because of that, they are not stable by themselves.

DNA may finally find a family for strange creatures that stumped Darwin

Genetic evidence for the Flood – a human population bottleneck matching Noah’s Flood Genesis – is glaringly obvious when our DNA is examined truthfully and logically. Plus going back further – the genetic proof for the first humans, Adam and Eve. Introduction There’s an old B-grade psychological horror film where a babysitter, babysitting at the client’s home late at night, continually receives threatening calls from a stalker on the house phone. She calls the police who promise to trace the call if she keeps the caller on the phone line long enough.

Evidences of the Great Flood are found everywhere on earth as fossils, sedimentary rocks, mammoths, mountains, rock strata, meteors and dinosaurs and a sudden chnage in human mitochondrial DNA.

Jose Angel Astor Rocha Shutterstock. There is some debate as to whether they were a distinct species of the Homo genus Homo neanderthalensis or a subspecies of Homo sapiens. Our well-known, but often misunderstood, fossil kin lived in Eurasia , to 30, years ago, in the Pleistocene Epoch. They started to evolve , and , years ago, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. Neanderthals’ appearance was similar to ours, though they were shorter and stockier with angled cheekbones, prominent brow ridges and wide noses.

Though sometimes thought of as dumb brutes, scientists have discovered that they used tools, buried their dead and controlled fire, among other intelligent behaviors. It is theorized that for a time, Neanderthals probably shared the Earth with other Homo species. Discovery In , a group of quarrymen discovered remnants of a skeleton in the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf, Germany hence their name.

In a limestone cave, they found 16 pieces of bone, including a skull.

Neanderthals: Facts About Our Extinct Human Relatives

And our DNA also holds clues about the timing of these key events in human evolution. When scientists say that modern humans emerged in Africa about , years ago and began their global spread about 60, years ago, how do they come up with those dates? Traditionally researchers built timelines of human prehistory based on fossils and artifacts, which can be directly dated with methods such as radiocarbon dating and Potassium-argon dating. However, these methods require ancient remains to have certain elements or preservation conditions, and that is not always the case.

Allentoft, M. E. et al. The half-life of DNA in bone: measuring decay kinetics in dated fossils. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. (): This is the half-life of a bp region of moa mitochondrial DNA, calibrated using radiocarbon years to approximate calendar years.

The same is true for the relationships among organisms. It consists of genes, which are the molecular codes for proteins — the building blocks of our tissues and their functions. It also consists of the molecular codes that regulate the output of genes — that is, the timing and degree of protein-making. DNA shapes how an organism grows up and the physiology of its blood, bone, and brains. DNA is thus especially important in the study of evolution.

The amount of difference in DNA is a test of the difference between one species and another — and thus how closely or distantly related they are. While the genetic difference between individual humans today is minuscule — about 0. The bonobo Pan paniscus , which is the close cousin of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes , differs from humans to the same degree.

The DNA difference with gorillas, another of the African apes, is about 1. Most importantly, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans all show this same amount of difference from gorillas. A difference of 3.

How molecular clocks are refining human evolution’s timeline

It concludes Homo sapiens had appeared by at least , to , years ago. That fits with a fossil finding in Morocco that was reported in June, which suggested our species had emerged by around , years ago. Previously, the oldest known fossils clearly from our species were a bit less than , years old, from Ethiopia.

Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better.

A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.

A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low. Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations.

If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population. Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited — unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment. The diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological niches for example, Darwin’s finches.

The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in “the adaptive radiation of mammals.

Ancient and Modern DNA Reveal How Cats Conquered World

KJV So, Adam became a living soul, the first living soul. This means that he necessarily had all of the human genetic variations in his DNA. This is why it is called the Bible.

Dec 07,  · Although earlys claims of DNA recovered from million year-old fossils [1–4] are now widely regarded as modern contaminants [5–13], the kinetics of long-term post-mortem DNA decay is still poorly understood.

Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago.

It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.

If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.

Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.

They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.

Fossil of Pregnant T. rex Could Contain DNA